Architects and firms that shaped Mumbai’s World Heritage Site

This list is a record of all the key players: artists, architects, engineers and contractors, who played a crucial role in shaping the recently inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site, “Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai”.

FOREIGN ARCHITECTURAL INFLUENCERS

19th Century

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DAVID E. GOSTLING

Partnered with F.W. Stevens to set up the firm ‘Gostling & Stevens’. In 1902, he established the firm Gostling & Chambers which by 1905 was called Gostling Chambers & Fritchley.

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FREDERICK WILLIAM STEVENS

Bombay’s foremost neo-Gothic architect. He is known as the architect of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus formerly known as Victoria Terminus. Architect of Western Railway Headquarters Offices formerly known as BB&CI Indian Railway Offices & Maharashtra Police Headquarters formerly known as Royal Alfred Sailors' Home.

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GENERAL HENRY ST. CLAIR WILKINS

Architect of Public Works Department Building and City civil & Sessions Court formerly known as the Old Secretariat.

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GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT

Famous practitioner of Gothic architecture, especially in Britain. He is known for designing the buildings within the University complex.

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GOSTLING & STEVENS

Firm formed in partnership between F.W. Stevens and D.E. Gostling. Architects for The Army Navy Building and Standard Chartered Bank building formerly known as Grindlays Bank.

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HENRY BARTLE FRERE

Governor of Bombay (appointed in 1862) and Gothic enthusiast. He ordered the demolition of the Fort Walls.

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JAMES TRUBSHAWE

Architectural Secretary to the Government in 19th century. Defined the building development codes for the city with T. R. Smith

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JOHN A. FULLER

Supervised the construction of the University Complex when he was the Architectural Engineer to the Government. Also, the Architect of Bombay High Court.

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JOHN LOCKWOOD KIPLING

Professor of architectural sculpture at J. J. School of Arts (1865-75). He worked on the University Complex and the Maharashtra Police Headquarters formerly known as Royal Alfred Sailors' Home, with his students from J.J. School of Arts.

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ROWLAND MASON ORDISH

Engineer commissioned by John H. Watson to build Mahendra Mansion formerly known as Watson’s Hotel.

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SCOTT, McCLELLAND & CO.

Architect of David Sassoon Library & Reading Room formerly known as David Sassoon Mechanics Institute and Library.

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T. R. SMITH

Lecturer at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), professor at University College, London & influential member of the Architectural Association, London. Defined the building development codes for the city with James Trubshawe

20th Century

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CHARLES FREDERICK STEVENS

Son of F. W. Stevens, born in Bombay and started his own architectural practice in early 20th century. He is known as the architect of Regal Cinema.

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CLAUDE BATLEY

English architect, a successful practitioner, academician, Head of the architecture department of J.J. School of Arts (1923-43) & name partner at the architectural practice of Gregson, Batley & King.

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DAVID WILLIAM DITCHBURN

Reputed architect who came to Bombay after World War I. He merged his practice with Mistri & Bhedwar after the demise of the last surviving partner then to form the architectural firm Ditchburn, Mistri & Bhedwar.

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DITCHBURN, MISTRI & BHEDWAR

An architectural practice established by the merger of individual practice of Ditchburn with the well-reputed architectural firm of Mistri & Bhedwar. Architects for Hong Kong Bank Building in association with John A. Ritchie & his partner L. Palfi.

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GREGSON, BATLEY & KING

Well-established architectural firm with name partners TS Gregson, Claude Batley and H. Foster King. Practice responsible for building Bank of India, Cricket Club of India and Windsor House.

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GEORGE WITTET

Scottish-born architect, Consulting Architect to Bombay (1907 - 1919) and 1st president of the Indian Institute of Architects. Architect of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya formerly known as Prince of Wales Museum, Institute of Science and Sir Cawasji Jahangir Hall (NGMA).

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JOHN A. RITCHIE

Architect of Hong Kong Bank Building formerly known as the Mercantile Bank of India. He worked on this project with his partner L. Palfi in association with Ditchburn, Mistri & Bhedwar.

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JOHN L. MULVANEY

Architect who designed Oval View, Ram Mahal and Shalimar within the precinct.

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W. A. CHAMBERS & COMPANY

Architectural firm that designed Majestic Aamdar Nivas formerly known as Majestic Hotel, an Indo Saracenic building near Wellington Circle.

INDIAN ARCHITECTURAL INFLUENCERS

19th Century

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KHAN BAHADUR MUNCHERJEE COWASJEE MURZBAN

Only Indian architect/engineer who gained recognition for his contribution in late 19th century. Architect of Elphinstone College.

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MUCCOOND RAMCHANDER

Indian engineer who supervised the sculptural schemes of the buildings in the University complex.

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RAOSAHEB SITARAM KHANDERAO VAIDYA

Assisted F. W. Stevens during the construction of Western Railway Headquarter Offices formerly known as BB&CI Indian Railway Offices, in late 19th century. He later is commissioned to design the iconic Taj Mahal Palace Hotel.

20th Century

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BHEDWAR & BHEDWAR

Architectural firm with Sohrabji Bhedwar as the name partner. Commissioned to build Queens Court, Green Fields, and Eros Cinema.

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CONTRACTOR & KANGA

Firm that was commissioned to build Empress Court. with G.B. Mhatre as consulting architect.

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C. M. MASTER

One of name partners of the first all Indian-led architectural practice Master, Sathe and Bhuta. He was also actively engaged with the architectural department of J.J. School of Arts & served as head of department from 1943-48.

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GAJANAN B. MHATRE

Prolific architect who worked as a consulting architect with various architectural/engineering firms in the city & through his works such as Empress Court, Moonlight, Soona Mahal, Sea Green Hotel, Sunshine, and Rajesh Mansion formerly known as Sorab Mansion among others shaped the city of Bombay. He was named “the Shadow Architect’ by Claude Batley.

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JAMSHEDJI PESTONJI MISTRI

Architect and founding partner of the well-reputed architectural firms Mistri & Bhedwar.

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K. L. GUPTA

Architect who designed Oceana along Marine Drive

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K. P. DAVER & CO.

Architectural firm that designed Belvedere Court along Oval Maidan.

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MAGANLAL VORA

Architect and name partner of the architectural firm Suvernpatki & Vora.

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MANECKJI DALAL

Architect who worked in the architectural firm of Merwanji, Bana & Co. He is credited for designing Court View formerly known as Rusi Court with G. B. Mhatre as the consulting architect.

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MASTER, SATHE AND BHUTA

First all-Indian led architectural firm. C. M. Master, one of the name partners of the firm actively engaged with the architectural department of J.J. School of Arts & served as head of department from 1943-48. Responsible for designing Sonawala Building.

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MERWANJI, BANA & CO.

An innovative firm responsible for the design of some of the most flamboyant buildings such as Shiv Shanti Bhuvan & Rajjab Mahal, Framroz Court, St. James Court and Court View with Maneckji Dalal and G.B. Mhatre as consulting architect.

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MINOO J. MISTRI

Son of Jamshedji Mistri of the architectural firm Mistri & Bhedwar. After his father’s death, he and his sister partnered with D. W. Ditchburn to form the architectural practice of Ditchburn, Mistri & Bhedwar.

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MISTRI & BHEDWAR

Architectural firm established in partnership between Sohrabji Bhedwar and Jamshedji Pestonji Mistri in 1890. The firm had the highest reputation for fair-dealing and integrity. Commisioned to build Palm Court, and Roshera.

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P. C. DASTUR

Architect of the three identical buildings along Marine Drive: Keval Mahal, Kapur Mahal and Zaver Mahal.

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PERIN J. MISTRI

First-registered lady architect of India, daughter of Jamshedji Mistri of the architectural firm Mistri & Bhedwar. After his father’s death, she and her brother partnered with D. W. Ditchburn to form the architectural practice of Ditchburn, Mistri & Bhedwar.

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POONAGER & BILIMORIA

An established firm with Poonager a well-known civil engineer as the name partner. An important firm as they got many building commissions at a time when few were given to Indians. G.B. Mhatre served as the chief architect for this firm during the early period of his career. Commissioned to build Sunshine with G.B. Mhatre.

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SHAPOORJI PALLONJI & CO.

Indian contracting firm that acquired its first construction commission at the turn of the 20th century. In the following decades, they were executing some of the largest building commissions of the time.

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SOHRABJI BHEDWAR

Architect of the iconic Eros Cinema and name partner in architectural firms Mistri & Bhedwar and Bhedwar & Bhedwar.

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SUVERNPATKI & VORA

Architectural firm that designed Soona Mahal & Sea Green Hotel with G. B. Mhatre as consulting architect.

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SYKES, PATKAR & DIVECHA

Architectural firm that designed Swastik Court along Oval Maidan.

Click on the building names of all the Art Deco buildings below to explore them:

Victorian Gothic:

David Sassoon Library & Reading Room

 

University Complex - University Library with Rajabai clocktower & University Convocation hall

 

Mahendra Mansion

 

Maharashtra Police Headquarters

 

Bombay High Court

 

Public Works Department building

 

City civil & Sessions Court

 

Elphinstone College

Indo Saracenic:

Majestic Aamdar Nivas

 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (CSMVS)

 

Western Railway Headquarter Offices

Neo Classical:

The Army Navy Building

 

Standard Chartered Bank building

 

Institute of Science

 

Sir Cawasji Jahangir Hall (NGMA)

 

Learn more about them, in the upcoming article "Ensembles' Architects and their architecture".

References
Sources for all images:

Header Image - Drawing of an unbuilt project by G.B. Mhatre; Iyer, Kamu. 2000. Buildings that shaped Bombay. Mumbai: Kamala Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute of Architecture & Environmental Studies.

Thumbnail Image - Members of the Council 1936-37; _____. 1936. “Editorial”. Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects III, no. 1 (July): 147-48.

Portrait of Khan Bahadur Muncherjee Cowasjee Murzban; Preeti Chopra. 2011. A Joint Enterprise: Indian Elites and the Making of British Bombay. Minneapolis: Univ Of Minnesota Press

Portrait of Frederick William Stevens; Wikimedia Commons. n.d. “Frederick William Stevens”. Assessed April 4, 2019. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frederick_William_Stevens.jpg

Portrait of George Gilbert Scott; Victorian Artists. n.d. “Sir George Gilbert Scott” Accessed February 13, 2019. http://www.avictorian.com/Scott_George_Gilbert.html

Portrait of Henry Bartle Frere; Encyclopædia Britannica. n.d. “Sir Bartle Frere, 1st Baronet” Accessed February 13, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sir-Bartle-Frere-1st-Baronet/media/219678/156773

Portrait of C. M. Master; ____. 1949. “Editorial”. Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects ___, no. __ (Oct - Dec): 86-87.

Portrait of Gajanan B. Mhatre; Iyer, Kamu. 2000. Buildings that shaped Bombay. Mumbai: Kamala Raheja Vidyanidhi Institute of Architecture & Environmental Studies.

Portrait of John Lockwood Kipling; Wikimedia Commons. n.d. “Portrait of John Lockwood Kipling”. Assessed April 12, 2019. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_John_Lockwood_Kipling.jpg#file

Portrait of Claude Batley; _____. 1936. “Editorial”. Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects III, no. 1 (July): 147-48.

Portrait of David William Ditchburn; _____. 1953. “David William Ditchburn: An appreciation by Claude Batley”. Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects ___, no. __ (April - June): 2-5.

Portrait of George Wittet; Scottish Architects. n.d. Accessed February 13, 2019 http://www.scottisharchitects.org.uk/de/image_archive/2011_02_17_miller/scr_miller.jpg
Research / UNESCO